Strain identifier

BacDive ID: 137139

Type strain: No

Species: Clostridioides difficile

NCBI tax ID(s): 499175 (strain), 1496 (species)

For citation purpose refer to the digital object identifier (doi) of the current version.
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General

@ref: 37003

BacDive-ID: 137139

keywords: mesophilic, anaerobe, Bacteria, genome sequence

description: Clostridioides difficile CIP 109240 is an anaerobe, mesophilic bacterium that was isolated from Human abdominal wound.

NCBI tax id

NCBI tax idMatching level
499175strain
1496species

doi: 10.13145/bacdive137139.20220920.7

Name and taxonomic classification

LPSN

  • @ref: 20215
  • description: domain/bacteria
  • keyword: phylum/bacillota
  • domain: Bacteria
  • phylum: Bacillota
  • class: Clostridia
  • order: Eubacteriales
  • family: Peptostreptococcaceae
  • genus: Clostridioides
  • species: Clostridioides difficile
  • full scientific name: Clostridioides difficile (Hall and O'Toole 1935) Lawson et al. 2016
  • synonyms

    @refsynonym
    20215Bacillus difficilis
    20215Peptoclostridium difficile
    20215Clostridium difficile

@ref: 37003

domain: Bacteria

phylum: Firmicutes

class: Clostridia

order: Eubacteriales

family: Peptostreptococcaceae

genus: Clostridioides

species: Clostridioides difficile

type strain: no

Culture and growth conditions

culture medium

  • @ref: 37003
  • name: Columbia sang de cheval-Biorad
  • growth: yes

culture temp

@refgrowthtypetemperaturerange
37003positivegrowth37mesophilic
46967positivegrowth37mesophilic

Physiology and metabolism

oxygen tolerance

  • @ref: 46967
  • oxygen tolerance: anaerobe

metabolite utilization

@refChebi-IDmetaboliteutilization activitykind of utilization tested
6838027897tryptophan-energy source
6838017632nitrate-reduction
6838029985L-glutamate-degradation
6838016634raffinose-fermentation
6838016024D-mannose-fermentation
6838029016arginine-hydrolysis
6838016199urea-hydrolysis

metabolite production

  • @ref: 68380
  • Chebi-ID: 35581
  • metabolite: indole
  • production: no

metabolite tests

  • @ref: 68380
  • Chebi-ID: 35581
  • metabolite: indole
  • indole test: -

enzymes

@refvalueactivityec
68380serine arylamidase-
68380glutamyl-glutamate arylamidase-
68380histidine arylamidase-
68380glycin arylamidase-
68380alanine arylamidase-3.4.11.2
68380tyrosine arylamidase-
68380pyrrolidonyl arylamidase-3.4.19.3
68380leucine arylamidase-3.4.11.1
68380phenylalanine arylamidase-
68380leucyl glycin arylamidase-3.4.11.1
68380proline-arylamidase+3.4.11.5
68380L-arginine arylamidase-
68380alkaline phosphatase-3.1.3.1
68380tryptophan deaminase-4.1.99.1
68380alpha-fucosidase-3.2.1.51
68380glutamate decarboxylase-4.1.1.15
68380N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase-3.2.1.52
68380beta-glucuronidase-3.2.1.31
68380alpha-arabinosidase-3.2.1.55
68380beta-glucosidase-3.2.1.21
68380alpha-glucosidase-3.2.1.20
68380beta-Galactosidase 6-phosphate-
68380beta-galactosidase-3.2.1.23
68380alpha-galactosidase-3.2.1.22
68380arginine dihydrolase-3.5.3.6
68380urease-3.5.1.5

fatty acid profile

  • @reffatty acidpercentageECL
    46967C12:04.212
    46967C14:04.714
    46967C16:016.216
    46967C18:02.618
    46967C10:0 ISO2.29.605
    46967C12:0 ISO2.811.608
    46967C16:0 iso3.215.626
    46967C16:0 ISO DMA ?416.107
    46967C16:1 ω7c8.715.819
    46967C16:1 ω9c4.315.774
    46967C17:1 ISO I/C16:0 DMA23.416.481
    46967C18:1 ω7c /12t/9t317.824
    46967C18:1 ω9c7.117.769
    46967C18:2 ω6,9c/C18:0 ANTE1.917.724
    46967C19:1 ISO I3.518.473
    46967Unidentified49.752
    46967unknown 14.9664.314.966
  • type of FA analysis: whole cell analysis
  • method/protocol: CCUG
  • @reffatty acidpercentageECL
    46967C12:01.812
    46967C14:02.114
    46967C16:011.916
    46967C18:07.118
    46967C10:0 ISO0.89.605
    4696711 methyl 18:1 ω7c1.718.081
    46967C12:0 ISO1.411.608
    46967C16:0 aldehyde4.514.949
    46967C16:0 iso3.415.626
    46967C16:0 ISO DMA ?3.416.107
    46967C16:1 ISO H1.115.461
    46967C16:1 ω7c4.615.819
    46967C16:1 ω9c2.615.774
    46967C17:0 10-methyl1.617.41
    46967C17:0 CYCLO2.916.888
    46967C17:1 ISO I/C16:0 DMA16.716.481
    46967C18:0 ISO1.817.632
    46967C18:1 ISO H217.46
    46967C18:1 ω7c /12t/9t2.617.824
    46967C18:1 ω9c617.769
    46967C18:2 ω6,9c/C18:0 ANTE2.617.724
    46967C19:0 CYCLO ω9c6.718.87
    46967C19:1 ISO I5.618.473
    46967Unidentified114.566
    46967Unidentified0.815.401
    46967unknown 16.9721.216.972
    46967unknown 9.7302.29.73
  • type of FA analysis: whole cell analysis
  • method/protocol: CCUG

API rID32A

@refUREADH Argalpha GALbeta GALbeta GPalpha GLUbeta GLUalpha ARAbeta GURbeta NAGMNERAFGDCalpha FUCNITINDPALArgAProALGAPheALeuAPyrATyrAAlaAGlyAHisAGGASerA
46967------------------+----------

Isolation, sampling and environmental information

isolation

  • @ref: 46967
  • sample type: Human abdominal wound

isolation source categories

Cat1Cat2Cat3
#Host Body-Site#Other#Abdomen
#Host Body-Site#Other#Wound
#Host#Human

Sequence information

Genome sequences

@refdescriptionaccessionassembly leveldatabaseNCBI tax ID
66792Clostridioides difficile ATCC 43255 ATCC 43255GCA_000155025chromosomencbi499175
66792Clostridioides difficile VPI 10463GCA_001995155contigncbi1496
66792Clostridioides difficile strain VPI 104631496.1555wgspatric1496
66792Clostridium difficile ATCC 43255499175.4wgspatric499175
66792Clostridioides difficile ATCC 432552512047057draftimg499175

External links

@ref: 37003

culture collection no.: CIP 109240, ATCC 43255, CCUG 19126, VPI 10463

straininfo link

@refpassport
20218http://www.straininfo.net/strains/840299
20218http://www.straininfo.net/strains/112371
20218http://www.straininfo.net/strains/131930
20218http://www.straininfo.net/strains/112372

literature

topicPubmed-IDtitleauthorsjournalDOIyearmeshtopic2
Enzymology1588579Proteolytic activity of Clostridium difficile.Seddon SV, Borriello SPJ Med Microbiol10.1099/00222615-36-5-3071992Amino Acid Sequence, Animals, Clostridioides difficile/*enzymology/pathogenicity, Clostridium Infections/microbiology, Endopeptidases/isolation & purification/*metabolism, Hydrogen-Ion Concentration, Molecular Sequence Data, Sheep, Substrate Specificity, Temperature, VirulenceGenetics
Metabolism1603068Comparative sequence analysis of the Clostridium difficile toxins A and B.von Eichel-Streiber C, Laufenberg-Feldmann R, Sartingen S, Schulze J, Sauerborn MMol Gen Genet10.1007/BF005875871992Amino Acid Sequence, Antibodies, Monoclonal, *Bacterial Proteins, Bacterial Toxins/*genetics/metabolism, Base Sequence, Blotting, Western, Clostridioides difficile/*genetics, Cross Reactions, DNA, Bacterial, DNA, Recombinant/genetics, Enterotoxins/*genetics/metabolism, Molecular Sequence Data, Nucleic Acid Hybridization, Recombinant Proteins/genetics/metabolism, Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid, Restriction Mapping, Sequence Homology, Nucleic AcidPathogenicity
Pathogenicity1910012Cytokine response by human monocytes to Clostridium difficile toxin A and toxin B.Flegel WA, Muller F, Daubener W, Fischer HG, Hadding U, Northoff HInfect Immun10.1128/iai.59.10.3659-3666.19911991*Bacterial Proteins, Bacterial Toxins/*toxicity, Blood Physiological Phenomena, Clostridioides difficile/*pathogenicity, Cytotoxins/*toxicity, Drug Synergism, *Enterotoxins, Hot Temperature, Humans, Interleukin-1/*metabolism, Interleukin-6/*metabolism, Lipopolysaccharides/toxicity, Monocytes/*drug effects/metabolism, Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/*metabolismMetabolism
Pathogenicity2105276Molecular characterization of the Clostridium difficile toxin A gene.Dove CH, Wang SZ, Price SB, Phelps CJ, Lyerly DM, Wilkins TD, Johnson JLInfect Immun10.1128/iai.58.2.480-488.19901990Amino Acid Sequence, Bacterial Toxins/analysis/*genetics, Base Sequence, Clostridium/*pathogenicity, Enterotoxins/*genetics, *Genes, Bacterial, Molecular Sequence DataGenetics
Enzymology2467163Purification of two high molecular weight toxins of Clostridium difficile which are antigenically related.von Eichel-Streiber C, Harperath U, Bosse D, Hadding UMicrob Pathog10.1016/0882-4010(87)90073-81987Animals, Bacterial Toxins/immunology/*isolation & purification/toxicity, Cell Line, Cell Survival/drug effects, Clostridium/*growth & development, Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel, Epitopes/*analysis, Male, Mice, Mice, Inbred BALB CPathogenicity
Pathogenicity2504650Evolution of the caecal epithelial barrier during Clostridium difficile infection in the mouse.Heyman M, Corthier G, Lucas F, Meslin JC, Desjeux JFGut10.1136/gut.30.8.10871989Animals, *Bacterial Proteins, Bacterial Toxins/pharmacology, Cecum/drug effects/*metabolism, Clostridium, Cytotoxins/pharmacology, Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous/*metabolism, Enterotoxins/pharmacology, Epithelium/drug effects/metabolism, Horseradish Peroxidase/pharmacokinetics, Mice, Mice, Inbred C3H, PermeabilityMetabolism
Enzymology2506313Cloning and characterization of overlapping DNA fragments of the toxin A gene of clostridium difficile.von Eichel-Streiber C, Suckau D, Wachter M, Hadding UJ Gen Microbiol10.1099/00221287-135-1-551989Bacterial Toxins/*genetics, Blotting, Western, Cloning, Molecular, Clostridium/*genetics, DNA, Bacterial/*analysis, *Enterotoxins, *Genes, Bacterial, Recombinant Fusion Proteins/metabolism, Restriction MappingPathogenicity
Pathogenicity3128476Clostridium difficile toxins A and B inhibit human immune response in vitro.Daubener W, Leiser E, von Eichel-Streiber C, Hadding UInfect Immun10.1128/iai.56.5.1107-1112.19881988*Bacterial Proteins, Bacterial Toxins/*pharmacology, *Enterotoxins, Humans, In Vitro Techniques, Interleukin-2/pharmacology, Lymphocyte Activation/*drug effects, Mitogens/pharmacology, Monocytes/drug effects/*immunology, T-Lymphocytes/drug effects/*immunology
Pathogenicity6500693Differential cytotoxic effects of toxins A and B isolated from Clostridium difficile.Rothman SW, Brown JE, Diecidue A, Foret DAInfect Immun10.1128/iai.46.2.324-331.19841984*Bacterial Proteins, Bacterial Toxins/isolation & purification/*toxicity, Cell Membrane Permeability/drug effects, Clostridium/*pathogenicity, Cytotoxins/*toxicity, Energy Metabolism/drug effects, HeLa Cells/drug effects, Humans, Molecular Weight, Potassium/metabolism, Protein BiosynthesisPhylogeny
Pathogenicity7494480Closing in on the toxic domain through analysis of a variant Clostridium difficile cytotoxin B.von Eichel-Streiber C, Meyer zu Heringdorf D, Habermann E, Sartingen SMol Microbiol10.1111/j.1365-2958.1995.mmi_17020313.x1995Actins/drug effects, Amino Acid Sequence, Animals, *Bacterial Proteins, Bacterial Toxins/*genetics/*toxicity, Base Sequence, Cell Line, Cloning, Molecular, Clostridioides difficile/*chemistry/genetics, Clostridium/chemistry, Cytotoxins/*genetics/*toxicity, Endothelium, Vascular/cytology, Genes, Bacterial/genetics, Molecular Sequence Data, Open Reading Frames/genetics, Restriction Mapping, Sequence Analysis, DNA, SwineEnzymology
Metabolism7793964Enhanced fermentation of mannitol and release of cytotoxin by Clostridium difficile in alkaline culture media.Kazamias MT, Sperry JFAppl Environ Microbiol10.1128/aem.61.6.2425-2427.19951995Clostridioides difficile/*metabolism, Culture Media, Cytotoxins/metabolism, Hydrogen-Ion Concentration, Mannitol/*metabolismCultivation
Pathogenicity7966203Toxin production by Clostridium difficile in a defined medium with limited amino acids.Yamakawa K, Kamiya S, Meng XQ, Karasawa T, Nakamura SJ Med Microbiol10.1099/00222615-41-5-3191994Amino Acids/metabolism, *Bacterial Proteins, Bacterial Toxins/*biosynthesis, Clostridioides difficile/growth & development/*metabolism, Culture Media, Cytotoxins/*biosynthesis, Enterotoxins/*biosynthesis, Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay, HumansMetabolism
Pathogenicity8013869Haemagglutination activity of toxigenic and non-toxigenic strains of Clostridium difficile.Meng XQ, Yamakawa K, Ogura H, Nakamura SFEMS Microbiol Lett10.1111/j.1574-6968.1994.tb06816.x1994Animals, Bacterial Toxins/*analysis/immunology/toxicity, Cell Fractionation, Cell Line, Clostridioides difficile/*immunology/pathogenicity, Enterotoxins/*analysis, *Hemagglutination, Hemagglutinins/*analysis/immunology/toxicity, Neutralization Tests, Rabbits
Pathogenicity8510136Serogroup F strains of Clostridium difficile produce toxin B but not toxin A.Depitre C, Delmee M, Avesani V, L'Haridon R, Roels A, Popoff M, Corthier GJ Med Microbiol10.1099/00222615-38-6-4341993Animals, *Bacterial Proteins, Bacterial Toxins/*analysis/genetics/toxicity, Base Sequence, Clostridioides difficile/*chemistry/classification/pathogenicity, Clostridium Infections/microbiology, Enterotoxins/*analysis/genetics/toxicity, Feces/microbiology, Genes, Bacterial/genetics, Germ-Free Life, Humans, Mice, Mice, Inbred C3H, Molecular Sequence Data, Serotyping, VirulenceGenetics
Enzymology8825908The toxigenic element of Clostridium difficile strain VPI 10463.Hammond GA, Johnson JLMicrob Pathog10.1016/s0882-4010(95)90263-51995Bacterial Toxins/*genetics, Chromosomes, Bacterial/genetics, Cloning, Molecular, Clostridioides difficile/*genetics, DNA Transposable Elements/genetics, DNA, Bacterial/*genetics, Genes, Bacterial/*geneticsPathogenicity
Stress8833929[Study of the thermoresistance of Clostridium difficile spores].Meisel-Mikolajczyk F, Kaliszuk-Kaminska E, Martirosian GMed Dosw Mikrobiol1995Clostridioides difficile/*growth & development, *Hot Temperature, Species Specificity, Spores, Bacterial/*physiologyPhylogeny
Pathogenicity8973304Definition of the single integration site of the pathogenicity locus in Clostridium difficile.Braun V, Hundsberger T, Leukel P, Sauerborn M, von Eichel-Streiber CGene10.1016/s0378-1119(96)00398-81996ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters/genetics, Amino Acid Sequence, *Bacterial Proteins, Bacterial Toxins/*genetics, Base Sequence, Clostridioides difficile/genetics/*pathogenicity, DNA Transposable Elements, DNA, Bacterial, Enterotoxins/*genetics, Humans, Intestines/microbiology, Molecular Sequence Data, Open Reading Frames, Sequence Homology, Amino Acid, Species Specificity, Virulence/geneticsGenetics
Pathogenicity9038324Positive regulation of Clostridium difficile toxins.Moncrief JS, Barroso LA, Wilkins TDInfect Immun10.1128/IAI.65.3.1105-1108.19971997Amino Acid Sequence, *Bacterial Proteins, Bacterial Toxins/*genetics, Clostridioides difficile/genetics/*pathogenicity, Enterotoxins/*genetics, *Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial, Molecular Sequence Data, *Promoter Regions, GeneticGenetics
Enzymology9075217Transcriptional analysis of the toxigenic element of Clostridium difficile.Hammond GA, Lyerly DM, Johnson JLMicrob Pathog10.1006/mpat.1996.01001997Bacterial Toxins/*genetics/immunology/metabolism, Bacteriophages/genetics, Base Sequence, Cloning, Molecular, Clostridioides difficile/*genetics, Codon, Initiator, DNA Primers/genetics, DNA, Bacterial/genetics/isolation & purification, Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay, Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial, Molecular Sequence Data, Nucleic Acid Hybridization, Open Reading Frames, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Promoter Regions, Genetic, RNA, Bacterial/genetics/isolation & purification, Sequence Analysis, DNA, *Transcription, Genetic, Virulence/geneticsPhylogeny
Pathogenicity9108241Transcription analysis of the genes tcdA-E of the pathogenicity locus of Clostridium difficile.Hundsberger T, Braun V, Weidmann M, Leukel P, Sauerborn M, von Eichel-Streiber CEur J Biochem10.1111/j.1432-1033.1997.t01-1-00735.x1997Amino Acid Sequence, Bacterial Proteins/genetics, Bacterial Toxins/genetics, Base Sequence, Clostridioides difficile/*genetics/growth & development/*pathogenicity, DNA Primers/genetics, DNA, Bacterial/genetics, DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics, Enterotoxins/genetics, *Genes, Bacterial, Molecular Sequence Data, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Promoter Regions, Genetic, Repressor Proteins/genetics, Sequence Homology, Amino Acid, Transcription, Genetic, Virulence/geneticsGenetics
Pathogenicity9638867Effect of isoleucine on toxin production by Clostridium difficile in a defined medium.Ikeda D, Karasawa T, Yamakawa K, Tanaka R, Namiki M, Nakamura SZentralbl Bakteriol10.1016/s0934-8840(98)80174-61998Amino Acids, *Bacterial Proteins, Bacterial Toxins/*biosynthesis, Clostridioides difficile/drug effects/*metabolism, Culture Media, Dose-Response Relationship, Drug, Enterotoxins/*biosynthesis, Isoleucine/*metabolism/pharmacology, Time FactorsMetabolism
Pathogenicity10204609Laboratory diagnosis of toxigenic Clostridium difficile by polymerase chain reaction: presence of toxin genes and their stable expression in toxigenic isolates from Japanese individuals.Karasawa T, Nojiri T, Hayashi Y, Maegawa T, Yamakawa K, Wang XM, Nakamura SJ Gastroenterol10.1007/s0053500502141999Adult, *Bacterial Proteins, Bacterial Toxins/biosynthesis/*genetics, Clostridioides difficile/*genetics/isolation & purification/metabolism, Culture Techniques, DNA Primers/chemistry, DNA, Bacterial/*analysis, Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous/diagnosis/*microbiology/pathology, Enterotoxins/biosynthesis/*genetics, Gene Expression, Humans, Japan, *Polymerase Chain Reaction, Sensitivity and SpecificityEnzymology
Metabolism10341072Detection and transcription of toxin DNA in a nontoxigenic strain of Clostridium difficile.Mathis JN, Pilkinton L, McMillin DECurr Microbiol10.1007/pl000068111999*Bacterial Proteins, Bacterial Toxins/biosynthesis/*genetics, Clostridioides difficile/*genetics/metabolism, DNA, Bacterial/genetics, Enterotoxins/biosynthesis/*genetics, Gene Expression, Genes, Bacterial, Polymerase Chain Reaction, RNA, Bacterial/genetics/metabolism, RNA, Messenger/genetics/metabolism, *Transcription, GeneticPathogenicity
Metabolism10439407Suppression of toxin production in Clostridium difficile VPI 10463 by amino acids.Karlsson S, Burman LG, Akerlund TMicrobiology (Reading)10.1099/13500872-145-7-16831999Amino Acids/*metabolism/pharmacology, *Bacterial Toxins, Bicarbonates/metabolism/pharmacology, Biotin/metabolism/pharmacology, Clostridioides difficile/drug effects/growth & development/*metabolism, Culture Media, Enterotoxins/*biosynthesis, Glucose/metabolism/pharmacology, KineticsPathogenicity
Pathogenicity10483735A nonsense mutation abrogates production of a functional enterotoxin A in Clostridium difficile toxinotype VIII strains of serogroups F and X.von Eichel-Streiber C, Zec-Pirnat I, Grabnar M, Rupnik MFEMS Microbiol Lett10.1111/j.1574-6968.1999.tb13773.x1999Bacterial Proteins/biosynthesis, Blotting, Western, Catalytic Domain/*genetics, Clostridioides difficile/classification/*genetics/metabolism, Enterotoxins/biosynthesis/*genetics, Gene Deletion, *Genes, Bacterial, Humans, *Mutation, Missense, Peptide Fragments/biosynthesis/genetics, Recombinant Proteins/biosynthesisBiotechnology
Pathogenicity10921980Genetic characterization of toxin A-negative, toxin B-positive Clostridium difficile isolates by PCR.Moncrief JS, Zheng L, Neville LM, Lyerly DMJ Clin Microbiol10.1128/JCM.38.8.3072-3075.20002000*Bacterial Proteins, Bacterial Toxins/*genetics/metabolism, Clostridioides difficile/*genetics/isolation & purification/metabolism, Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous/microbiology, Enterotoxins/*genetics/metabolism, Genes, Bacterial, Humans, Immunoenzyme Techniques, *Polymerase Chain ReactionMetabolism
Pathogenicity10992443Toxin gene analysis of a variant strain of Clostridium difficile that causes human clinical disease.Sambol SP, Merrigan MM, Lyerly D, Gerding DN, Johnson SInfect Immun10.1128/IAI.68.10.5480-5487.20002000Aged, Animals, *Bacterial Proteins, Bacterial Toxins/*genetics/toxicity, Clostridioides difficile/*genetics/growth & development/metabolism/*pathogenicity, Culture Media, Deoxyribonuclease HindIII/metabolism, Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous/*microbiology, Enterotoxins/*genetics/toxicity, Genes, Bacterial, *Genetic Variation, Humans, Ileum, Male, Molecular Sequence Data, Nucleic Acid Hybridization, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Prohibitins, Rabbits, Restriction Mapping, Sequence Analysis, DNAMetabolism
Metabolism10992498Toxins, butyric acid, and other short-chain fatty acids are coordinately expressed and down-regulated by cysteine in Clostridium difficile.Karlsson S, Lindberg A, Norin E, Burman LG, Akerlund TInfect Immun10.1128/IAI.68.10.5881-5888.20002000Amino Acid Sequence, Bacterial Proteins/chemistry/metabolism, Bacterial Toxins/*biosynthesis, Butanols/pharmacology, Butyric Acid/metabolism, Clostridioides difficile/*drug effects/growth & development/*metabolism, Culture Media, Cysteine/*pharmacology, Down-Regulation, Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous/microbiology, Fatty Acids, Volatile/*metabolism, Humans, Molecular Sequence Data, Oxidoreductases/chemistry/metabolismPathogenicity
Pathogenicity11591204How to detect Clostridium difficile variant strains in a routine laboratory.Rupnik MClin Microbiol Infect10.1046/j.1198-743x.2001.00290.x2001*Bacterial Proteins, Bacterial Toxins/analysis/biosynthesis, Clostridioides difficile/*classification/genetics/metabolism, DNA, Bacterial/chemistry/genetics, Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous/diagnosis/*microbiology, Enterotoxins/analysis/biosynthesis, Humans, Polymerase Chain Reaction/methodsPhylogeny
Metabolism12101311Proteins released during high toxin production in Clostridium difficile.Mukherjee K, Karlsson S, Burman LG, Akerlund TMicrobiology (Reading)10.1099/00221287-148-7-22452002Amino Acid Sequence, Bacterial Proteins/*chemistry/genetics/*metabolism, Bacterial Toxins/*biosynthesis, Clostridioides difficile/growth & development/*metabolism, Culture Media, Conditioned, Enterotoxins/*biosynthesis, Kinetics, Membrane Glycoproteins/chemistry/genetics/metabolism, Molecular Sequence Data, Polymerase Chain ReactionPathogenicity
Metabolism12654792Expression of Clostridium difficile toxins A and B and their sigma factor TcdD is controlled by temperature.Karlsson S, Dupuy B, Mukherjee K, Norin E, Burman LG, Akerlund TInfect Immun10.1128/IAI.71.4.1784-1793.20032003*Bacterial Proteins, Bacterial Toxins/genetics/*metabolism, Butyric Acid/metabolism, Clostridioides difficile/growth & development/*metabolism, DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics/*metabolism, Enterotoxins/genetics/*metabolism, *Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial, Humans, Promoter Regions, Genetic, *Temperature, Transcription, GeneticPathogenicity
Pathogenicity14970244Immunological detection and cytotoxic properties of toxins from toxin A-positive, toxin B-positive Clostridium difficile variants.Blake JE, Mitsikosta F, Metcalfe MAJ Med Microbiol10.1099/jmm.0.05404-02004Animals, *Bacterial Proteins, Bacterial Toxins/analysis/immunology/*toxicity, Cell Survival/drug effects, Chlorocebus aethiops, Clostridioides difficile/*pathogenicity, Cytotoxins/analysis/immunology/*toxicity, Dialysis, Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel, Enterotoxins/analysis/immunology/*toxicity, Humans, Immunoblotting, Vero CellsEnzymology
Enzymology15309736Simplified purification method for Clostridium difficile toxin A.Fu SW, Xue J, Zhang YL, Zhou DYWorld J Gastroenterol10.3748/wjg.v10.i18.27562004Animals, Anion Exchange Resins, Bacterial Toxins/immunology/*isolation & purification/toxicity, Biotechnology, Chemical Precipitation, Chlorocebus aethiops, Chromatography, Affinity/*methods, Enterotoxins/immunology/*isolation & purification/toxicity, Ethanolamines, Ileum, Immunodiffusion, Polymers, Rabbits, Vero CellsPhylogeny
Enzymology16098481LuxS/autoinducer-2 quorum sensing molecule regulates transcriptional virulence gene expression in Clostridium difficile.Lee AS, Song KPBiochem Biophys Res Commun10.1016/j.bbrc.2005.07.1312005Bacterial Proteins/*physiology, Base Sequence, Carbon-Sulfur Lyases, Cloning, Molecular, Clostridioides difficile/genetics/*pathogenicity, DNA Primers, DNA, Bacterial, Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial/*physiology, *Genes, Bacterial, Genetic Complementation Test, Molecular Sequence Data, Transcription, Genetic/*physiology, Virulence/*geneticsGenetics
Phylogeny16599301Co-infection of hamsters with toxin A or toxin B-deficient Clostridium difficile strains.Szczesny A, Martirosian G, Cohen S, Silva J JrPol J Microbiol2005Animals, Bacterial Proteins/genetics/*toxicity, Bacterial Toxins/genetics/*toxicity, Clostridioides difficile/classification/genetics/*pathogenicity, Clostridium Infections/etiology/microbiology, Cricetinae, Enterotoxins/genetics/*toxicity, Genes, Bacterial, Mesocricetus, Species SpecificityPathogenicity
16887714Binary toxin producing Clostridium difficile strains.Rupnik M, Grabnar M, Geric BAnaerobe10.1016/j.anaerobe.2003.09.0022003
Metabolism17145947Difference in the cytotoxic effects of toxin B from Clostridium difficile strain VPI 10463 and toxin B from variant Clostridium difficile strain 1470.Huelsenbeck J, Dreger S, Gerhard R, Barth H, Just I, Genth HInfect Immun10.1128/IAI.01705-062006Animals, Bacterial Proteins/metabolism/*toxicity, Bacterial Toxins/metabolism/*toxicity, Basophils/*cytology/metabolism, Caspase 3/analysis, Caspase Inhibitors, Cell Line, Tumor, Cell Shape, Cell Survival, Clostridioides difficile/classification/genetics/metabolism/*pathogenicity, DNA Fragmentation, Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology, Glycosylation, Oligopeptides/pharmacology, Rats, cdc42 GTP-Binding Protein/metabolism, rhoA GTP-Binding Protein/metabolism, rhoB GTP-Binding Protein/metabolismPathogenicity
Pathogenicity18195066Comparative efficacies of rifaximin and vancomycin for treatment of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea and prevention of disease recurrence in hamsters.Kokkotou E, Moss AC, Michos A, Espinoza D, Cloud JW, Mustafa N, O'Brien M, Pothoulakis C, Kelly CPAntimicrob Agents Chemother10.1128/AAC.01143-072008Animals, Anti-Infective Agents/administration & dosage/pharmacology/*therapeutic use, Clostridioides difficile/*drug effects, Cricetinae, Diarrhea/*drug therapy/microbiology/mortality/pathology, Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous/*drug therapy/microbiology/mortality/pathology, Humans, Mesocricetus, Rifamycins/administration & dosage/pharmacology/*therapeutic use, Rifaximin, Treatment Outcome, Vancomycin/administration & dosage/pharmacology/*therapeutic use, Weight Gain
Metabolism18397287Heterogeneity of large clostridial toxins: importance of Clostridium difficile toxinotypes.Rupnik MFEMS Microbiol Rev10.1111/j.1574-6976.2008.00110.x2008Animal Diseases/*metabolism/microbiology, Animals, Bacterial Proteins/genetics/metabolism, Bacterial Toxins/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism, Bacterial Typing Techniques/*methods, Chromosomes, Bacterial/genetics, Clostridioides difficile/chemistry/*classification/genetics/metabolism, Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous/*metabolism/*microbiology/veterinary, Enterotoxins/chemistry/genetics/metabolism, Evolution, Molecular, HumansPathogenicity
Pathogenicity18475713Effects of anti-inflammatory drugs on fever and neutrophilia induced by Clostridium difficile toxin B.Cardoso RA, Filho AA, Melo MC, Lyerly DM, Wilkins TD, Lima AA, Ribeiro RA, Souza GEMediators Inflamm10.1155/S09629351960002451996
Genetics18480336Comparative analysis of BI/NAP1/027 hypervirulent strains reveals novel toxin B-encoding gene (tcdB) sequences.Stabler RA, Dawson LF, Phua LTH, Wren BWJ Med Microbiol10.1099/jmm.0.47743-02008Amino Acid Sequence, Bacterial Proteins/chemistry/*genetics/metabolism, Bacterial Toxins/chemistry/*genetics/metabolism, Clostridioides difficile/*classification/*genetics/metabolism, Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial/physiology, Genes, Bacterial, Genome, Bacterial, Molecular Sequence Data, PhylogenyMetabolism
Metabolism18957596Induction of toxins in Clostridium difficile is associated with dramatic changes of its metabolism.Karlsson S, Burman LG, Akerlund TMicrobiology (Reading)10.1099/mic.0.2008/019778-02008Amino Acids/metabolism, Bacterial Proteins/biosynthesis/*genetics, Bacterial Toxins/biosynthesis/*genetics, Clostridioides difficile/*genetics/*metabolism, Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial, Glucose/metabolism, Transcription, Genetic, *Transcriptional ActivationPathogenicity
Pathogenicity19558711Truncation in the tcdC region of the Clostridium difficile PathLoc of clinical isolates does not predict increased biological activity of Toxin B or Toxin A.Murray R, Boyd D, Levett PN, Mulvey MR, Alfa MJBMC Infect Dis10.1186/1471-2334-9-1032009Amino Acid Sequence, Bacterial Proteins/*genetics/*metabolism, Bacterial Toxins/*metabolism, Bacterial Typing Techniques, Caco-2 Cells, Clostridioides difficile/classification/*genetics/growth & development, DNA, Bacterial/genetics, Enterotoxins/*metabolism, Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial, Humans, Molecular Sequence Data, Mutation, Repressor Proteins/*genetics, Sequence Analysis, DNAMetabolism
Phylogeny20597003Clostridium difficile toxinotyping.Rupnik MMethods Mol Biol10.1007/978-1-60327-365-7_52010Bacterial Proteins/genetics, Bacterial Toxins/classification/genetics, Bacterial Typing Techniques, Clostridioides difficile/*classification/*genetics, Enterotoxins/genetics, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment LengthPathogenicity
Metabolism20675495Human hypervirulent Clostridium difficile strains exhibit increased sporulation as well as robust toxin production.Merrigan M, Venugopal A, Mallozzi M, Roxas B, Viswanathan VK, Johnson S, Gerding DN, Vedantam GJ Bacteriol10.1128/JB.00445-102010Bacterial Proteins/genetics/*metabolism, Bacterial Toxins/genetics/*metabolism, Clostridioides difficile/genetics/*growth & development/*metabolism, Enterotoxins/genetics/*metabolism, Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay, Humans, Repressor Proteins/genetics/*metabolism, Spores, Bacterial/genetics/*growth & development, Virulence/genetics/physiologyPathogenicity
Metabolism21349983Killing kinetics of fidaxomicin and its major metabolite, OP-1118, against Clostridium difficile.Babakhani F, Gomez A, Robert N, Sears PJ Med Microbiol10.1099/jmm.0.029470-02011Aminoglycosides/metabolism/*pharmacology, Anti-Bacterial Agents/metabolism/*pharmacology, Clostridioides difficile/*drug effects/genetics, Drug Resistance, Bacterial, Fidaxomicin, Microbial Sensitivity Tests, Time Factors, Vancomycin/pharmacologyEnzymology
Pathogenicity21393140Activity of RBx 11760, a novel biaryl oxazolidinone, against Clostridium difficile.Mathur T, Kumar M, Barman TK, Kumar GR, Kalia V, Singhal S, Raj VS, Upadhyay DJ, Das B, Bhatnagar PKJ Antimicrob Chemother10.1093/jac/dkr0332011Animals, Anti-Bacterial Agents/*administration & dosage/*pharmacology, Bacterial Toxins/biosynthesis, Clostridioides difficile/*drug effects/isolation & purification, Clostridium Infections/*drug therapy/microbiology, Cricetinae, Disease Models, Animal, Humans, Mesocricetus, Metronidazole/administration & dosage, Oxazolidinones/*administration & dosage/*pharmacology, Spores, Bacterial/drug effects, Vancomycin/administration & dosageEnzymology
Pathogenicity21474613Efficacy of decontaminants and disinfectants against Clostridium difficile.Vohra P, Poxton IRJ Med Microbiol10.1099/jmm.0.030288-02011Clostridioides difficile/*drug effects, Decontamination/*methods, Disinfectants/*pharmacology, Drug Resistance, Bacterial, Spores, Bacterial/drug effects
Pathogenicity21804357The interplay between microbiome dynamics and pathogen dynamics in a murine model of Clostridium difficile Infection.Reeves AE, Theriot CM, Bergin IL, Huffnagle GB, Schloss PD, Young VBGut Microbes10.4161/gmic.2.3.163332011Animals, Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology, Bacteria/classification/drug effects/*genetics/isolation & purification, Clostridioides difficile/drug effects/*genetics/isolation & purification/physiology, Clostridium Infections/*microbiology, Colitis/*microbiology, Disease Models, Animal, Gastrointestinal Tract/drug effects/microbiology, Humans, *Metagenome/drug effects, Mice, Mice, Inbred C57BLPhylogeny
Transcriptome22006564Profound alterations of intestinal microbiota following a single dose of clindamycin results in sustained susceptibility to Clostridium difficile-induced colitis.Buffie CG, Jarchum I, Equinda M, Lipuma L, Gobourne A, Viale A, Ubeda C, Xavier J, Pamer EGInfect Immun10.1128/IAI.05496-112011Animals, Anti-Bacterial Agents/*administration & dosage, Bacteria/classification/*drug effects/genetics, Biodiversity, Clindamycin/*administration & dosage, Clostridioides difficile/pathogenicity, Clostridium Infections/*immunology/microbiology/mortality, Colitis/*immunology/microbiology/mortality, Diarrhea/immunology/microbiology/mortality, *Disease Susceptibility, Female, Gastrointestinal Tract/*metabolism, Longitudinal Studies, Mice, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Sequence Analysis, DNA/methods, Survival Analysis, Time FactorsPhylogeny
22014083Bacillus Coagulans GBI-30 (BC30) improves indices of Clostridium difficile-Induced colitis in mice.Fitzpatrick LR, Small JS, Greene WH, Karpa KD, Keller DGut Pathog10.1186/1757-4749-3-162011
Metabolism22198617Cefoperazone-treated mice as an experimental platform to assess differential virulence of Clostridium difficile strains.Theriot CM, Koumpouras CC, Carlson PE, Bergin II, Aronoff DM, Young VBGut Microbes10.4161/gmic.191422011Animals, Blood Cell Count, Cecum/microbiology/pathology, Cefoperazone/administration & dosage/*pharmacology, Chlorocebus aethiops, Clostridioides difficile/*pathogenicity, Colon/microbiology/pathology, Edema/microbiology/pathology, Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous/*drug therapy/microbiology/*pathology, Female, Intestinal Mucosa/microbiology/pathology, Male, Mice, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Models, Animal, Neutrophils/metabolism, Vero Cells, Virulence, Weight Loss
Pathogenicity22409477Induction of cytokines in a macrophage cell line by proteins of Clostridium difficile.Vohra P, Poxton IRFEMS Immunol Med Microbiol10.1111/j.1574-695X.2012.00952.x2012Antigens, Bacterial/*immunology, Bacterial Proteins/*immunology, Cell Line, Clostridioides difficile/*immunology, Culture Media/chemistry, Cytokines/*metabolism, Humans, Macrophages/*immunology/*microbiologyCultivation
Phylogeny22890996Suppression of Clostridium difficile in the gastrointestinal tracts of germfree mice inoculated with a murine isolate from the family Lachnospiraceae.Reeves AE, Koenigsknecht MJ, Bergin IL, Young VBInfect Immun10.1128/IAI.00647-122012Animals, Clostridioides difficile/genetics/*pathogenicity, Colony Count, Microbial, Escherichia coli/genetics/isolation & purification, Gastrointestinal Tract/*microbiology, Germ-Free Life, Gram-Positive Endospore-Forming Rods/genetics/isolation & purification, Metagenome, Mice, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Phylogeny, RNA, Ribosomal, 16SEnzymology
23088680Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086 limits the recurrence of Clostridium difficile-Induced colitis following vancomycin withdrawal in mice.Fitzpatrick LR, Small JS, Greene WH, Karpa KD, Farmer S, Keller DGut Pathog10.1186/1757-4749-4-132012
Pathogenicity23147742Vancomycin treatment's association with delayed intestinal tissue injury, clostridial overgrowth, and recurrence of Clostridium difficile infection in mice.Warren CA, van Opstal EJ, Riggins MS, Li Y, Moore JH, Kolling GL, Guerrant RL, Hoffman PSAntimicrob Agents Chemother10.1128/AAC.00877-122012Aminoglycosides/therapeutic use, Animals, Anti-Bacterial Agents/*therapeutic use, Bacteroides/genetics, Cecum/microbiology, Clostridioides difficile/drug effects/genetics/*pathogenicity, Clostridium Infections/drug therapy, DNA, Bacterial/isolation & purification, Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous/*drug therapy/*mortality, Feces/microbiology, Fidaxomicin, Intestines/drug effects/injuries/microbiology, Male, Metronidazole/therapeutic use, Mice, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Nitro Compounds, Recurrence, Thiazoles/therapeutic use, Treatment Outcome, Vancomycin/*therapeutic useEnzymology
Metabolism23217055Adenosine A2A receptor activation reduces recurrence and mortality from Clostridium difficile infection in mice following vancomycin treatment.Li Y, Figler RA, Kolling G, Bracken TC, Rieger J, Stevenson RW, Linden J, Guerrant RL, Warren CABMC Infect Dis10.1186/1471-2334-12-3422012Animals, Anti-Bacterial Agents/*administration & dosage, Body Weight, Clostridioides difficile/*pathogenicity, Clostridium Infections/*drug therapy/mortality/*prevention & control, Diarrhea/drug therapy/mortality/prevention & control, Disease Models, Animal, Gene Deletion, Male, Mice, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Mice, Knockout, Receptor, Adenosine A2A/genetics/immunology/*metabolism, Secondary Prevention, Survival Analysis, Vancomycin/*administration & dosage
Pathogenicity23344455Difference in F-actin depolymerization induced by toxin B from the Clostridium difficile strain VPI 10463 and toxin B from the variant Clostridium difficile serotype F strain 1470.May M, Wang T, Muller M, Genth HToxins (Basel)10.3390/toxins50101062013Actins/*drug effects/metabolism, Animals, Bacterial Proteins/chemistry/immunology/*toxicity, Bacterial Toxins/chemistry/immunology/*toxicity, Biomarkers/metabolism, Bridged Bicyclo Compounds, Heterocyclic/pharmacology, Cell Line, Tumor, Cell Shape/drug effects, Clostridioides difficile/pathogenicity/*physiology, Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay, Female, Glycosylation, HeLa Cells, Hepatocytes/drug effects/metabolism, Humans, Mice, NIH 3T3 Cells, Paxillin/metabolism, Polymerization/*drug effects, Serotyping, Species Specificity, Thiazolidines/pharmacology, p21-Activated Kinases/metabolism, rhoA GTP-Binding Protein/antagonists & inhibitors/chemistry/*metabolismMetabolism
Pathogenicity23359592Intestinal epithelial restitution after TcdB challenge and recovery from Clostridium difficile infection in mice with alanyl-glutamine treatment.Rodrigues RS, Oliveira RA, Li Y, Zaja-Milatovic S, Costa LB, Braga Neto MB, Kolling GL, Lima AA, Guerrant RL, Warren CAJ Infect Dis10.1093/infdis/jit0412013Animals, Apoptosis/drug effects, Bacterial Proteins/*genetics/metabolism, Bacterial Toxins/*genetics/metabolism, Cell Line, Cell Proliferation/drug effects, Clostridioides difficile/*drug effects/growth & development, Clostridium Infections/drug therapy/microbiology, Dipeptides/*pharmacology, Disease Models, Animal, Enterocytes/*drug effects/metabolism/microbiology, Intestinal Mucosa/drug effects/*microbiology, Male, Mice, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Necrosis/drug therapy/pathology, Rats, Vancomycin/pharmacologyMetabolism
Pathogenicity23545305Toll-like receptor 5-dependent immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a recombinant fusion protein vaccine containing the nontoxic domains of Clostridium difficile toxins A and B and Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium flagellin in a mouse model of Clostridium difficile disease.Ghose C, Verhagen JM, Chen X, Yu J, Huang Y, Chenesseau O, Kelly CP, Ho DDInfect Immun10.1128/IAI.01074-122013Adjuvants, Immunologic, Animals, Bacterial Proteins/immunology, Bacterial Toxins/immunology, Bacterial Vaccines/*immunology, Cell Line, Clostridium Infections/*prevention & control, Enterotoxins/immunology, Female, Flagellin/chemistry/metabolism/*pharmacology, Mice, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Protein Subunits/immunology, Recombinant Fusion Proteins/immunology, Salmonella typhimurium/genetics/*metabolism, Toll-Like Receptor 5/genetics/*metabolism, Vaccines, Synthetic/immunologyMetabolism
Phylogeny23815405A unique strain of community-acquired Clostridium difficile in severe complicated infection and death of a young adult.Heslop OD, Roye-Green K, Coard K, Mulvey MRBMC Infect Dis10.1186/1471-2334-13-2992013Adult, Clindamycin/adverse effects, Clostridioides difficile/*classification/isolation & purification, Community-Acquired Infections/*microbiology, Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous/*microbiology, Fatal Outcome, Female, Hospitalization, Humans, Klebsiella Infections/*microbiology, Klebsiella pneumoniae/isolation & purification, Megacolon, Toxic/microbiology, Young AdultEnzymology
Pathogenicity23887866In vitro selection, via serial passage, of Clostridium difficile mutants with reduced susceptibility to fidaxomicin or vancomycin.Leeds JA, Sachdeva M, Mullin S, Barnes SW, Ruzin AJ Antimicrob Chemother10.1093/jac/dkt3022013Aminoglycosides/*pharmacology, Anti-Bacterial Agents/*pharmacology, Cell Wall/genetics, Clostridioides difficile/*drug effects/*growth & development, DNA Mutational Analysis, DNA, Bacterial/chemistry/genetics/isolation & purification, DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases/genetics, *Drug Resistance, Bacterial, Fidaxomicin, Genome, Bacterial, Humans, Microbial Sensitivity Tests, *Mutation, Selection, Genetic, Sequence Analysis, DNA, Serial Passage, Thiazoles/pharmacology, Vancomycin/*pharmacologyGenetics
Metabolism24498186Spore formation and toxin production in Clostridium difficile biofilms.Semenyuk EG, Laning ML, Foley J, Johnston PF, Knight KL, Gerding DN, Driks APLoS One10.1371/journal.pone.00877572014Bacterial Toxins/genetics/*metabolism, Biofilms/*growth & development, Clostridioides difficile/genetics/*metabolism/*physiology, DNA, Bacterial/genetics, Germination/genetics, Polysaccharides/metabolism, Proteins/metabolism, Spores, Bacterial/genetics/metabolism/*physiologyBiotechnology
Pathogenicity24590475Alteration of the murine gastrointestinal microbiota by tigecycline leads to increased susceptibility to Clostridium difficile infection.Bassis CM, Theriot CM, Young VBAntimicrob Agents Chemother10.1128/AAC.02262-132014Animals, Clostridioides difficile/drug effects/*pathogenicity, Clostridium Infections/*drug therapy, Female, Gastrointestinal Tract/*microbiology, Male, Mice, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Microbiota/drug effects, Minocycline/*analogs & derivatives/therapeutic use, Tigecycline
Metabolism24905543Haemorrhagic toxin and lethal toxin from Clostridium sordellii strain vpi9048: molecular characterization and comparative analysis of substrate specificity of the large clostridial glucosylating toxins.Genth H, Pauillac S, Schelle I, Bouvet P, Bouchier C, Varela-Chavez C, Just I, Popoff MRCell Microbiol10.1111/cmi.123212014Bacterial Toxins/genetics/*metabolism, Clostridium sordellii/genetics/*metabolism, DNA, Bacterial/chemistry/genetics, *Glycosylation, Molecular Sequence Data, Monomeric GTP-Binding Proteins/*metabolism, Sequence Analysis, DNA, Sequence Homology, Amino Acid, Substrate SpecificityGenetics
Pathogenicity25024365An optimized, synthetic DNA vaccine encoding the toxin A and toxin B receptor binding domains of Clostridium difficile induces protective antibody responses in vivo.Baliban SM, Michael A, Shammassian B, Mudakha S, Khan AS, Cocklin S, Zentner I, Latimer BP, Bouillaut L, Hunter M, Marx P, Sardesai NY, Welles SL, Jacobson JM, Weiner DB, Kutzler MAInfect Immun10.1128/IAI.01950-142014Animals, Antibodies, Bacterial/*blood, Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood, Antitoxins/*blood, Bacterial Proteins/genetics/*immunology, Bacterial Toxins/genetics/*immunology, Bacterial Vaccines/administration & dosage/genetics/*immunology, Cross Protection, Electrophoresis, Enterotoxins/genetics/*immunology, Female, Injections, Intramuscular, Macaca mulatta, Mice, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Neutralization Tests, Recombinant Proteins/genetics/immunology, Survival Analysis, Vaccines, DNA/administration & dosage/genetics/*immunology, Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage/genetics/immunologyEnzymology
Phylogeny25036923An in vitro culture model to study the dynamics of colonic microbiota in Syrian golden hamsters and their susceptibility to infection with Clostridium difficile.Miezeiewski M, Schnaufer T, Muravsky M, Wang S, Caro-Aguilar I, Secore S, Thiriot DS, Hsu C, Rogers I, DeSantis T, Kuczynski J, Probst AJ, Chehoud C, Steger R, Warrington J, Bodmer JL, Heinrichs JHISME J10.1038/ismej.2014.1272014Animals, Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology, Clindamycin/pharmacology, *Clostridioides difficile/classification/drug effects/growth & development, Clostridium Infections/*microbiology, Colon/*microbiology, Cricetinae, Enterocolitis/microbiology, Feces/microbiology, Male, Mesocricetus, *Microbiota, Models, BiologicalPathogenicity
Metabolism25230329Clostridium difficile-induced colitis in mice is independent of leukotrienes.Trindade BC, Theriot CM, Leslie JL, Carlson PE Jr, Bergin IL, Peters-Golden M, Young VB, Aronoff DMAnaerobe10.1016/j.anaerobe.2014.09.0062014Animals, Clostridioides difficile/*growth & development/immunology, Clostridium Infections/*microbiology/*pathology, Colitis/*microbiology/*pathology, Disease Models, Animal, Female, Histocytochemistry, Leukotrienes/*metabolism, Mice, Inbred C57BL
Pathogenicity25312952Persistence and toxin production by Clostridium difficile within human intestinal organoids result in disruption of epithelial paracellular barrier function.Leslie JL, Huang S, Opp JS, Nagy MS, Kobayashi M, Young VB, Spence JRInfect Immun10.1128/IAI.02561-142014Bacterial Proteins/*toxicity, Bacterial Toxins/*toxicity, Clostridioides difficile/*metabolism, Enterotoxins/*toxicity, Humans, Intestinal Mucosa/drug effects/*microbiology/*physiology, Organ Culture Techniques, Organoids/*microbiology/*physiologyBiotechnology
Metabolism25399934The role of Gr-1(+) cells and tumour necrosis factor-alpha signalling during Clostridium difficile colitis in mice.McDermott AJ, Higdon KE, Muraglia R, Erb-Downward JR, Falkowski NR, McDonald RA, Young VB, Huffnagle GBImmunology10.1111/imm.124252015Animals, Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology, Antibodies, Monoclonal/pharmacology, Ceftriaxone, Clostridioides difficile/immunology/*pathogenicity, Colon/drug effects/immunology/*metabolism/pathology, Disease Models, Animal, Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous/genetics/immunology/*metabolism/microbiology/pathology/preventio n & control, Gene Expression Regulation, Host-Pathogen Interactions, Inflammation Mediators/metabolism, Intestinal Mucosa/immunology/metabolism/pathology, Male, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Microbiota, Monocytes/immunology/metabolism/microbiology, Neutrophils/immunology/metabolism/microbiology, Receptors, Cell Surface/antagonists & inhibitors/immunology/*metabolism, *Signal Transduction/drug effects, Time Factors, Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/antagonists & inhibitors/immunology/*metabolismPathogenicity
Metabolism25493020Clostridium difficile infection aggravates colitis in interleukin 10-deficient mice.Kim MN, Koh SJ, Kim JM, Im JP, Jung HC, Kim JSWorld J Gastroenterol10.3748/wjg.v20.i45.170842014Animals, Bacterial Toxins/pharmacology, Bone Marrow Cells/drug effects/immunology/metabolism, Cells, Cultured, Clostridioides difficile/*pathogenicity, Colitis/genetics/immunology/*metabolism/*microbiology/pathology, Colon/immunology/*metabolism/*microbiology/pathology, Dendritic Cells/drug effects/immunology/metabolism, Disease Models, Animal, Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous/genetics/immunology/*metabolism/*microbiology/pathology, Enterotoxins/pharmacology, Interferon-gamma/genetics/metabolism, Interleukin-10/*deficiency/genetics, Interleukin-12/genetics/metabolism, Interleukin-23/genetics/metabolism, Male, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Mice, Knockout, RNA, Messenger/metabolism, Severity of Illness Index, Time Factors, Weight LossPathogenicity
Metabolism25534943Dynamics and establishment of Clostridium difficile infection in the murine gastrointestinal tract.Koenigsknecht MJ, Theriot CM, Bergin IL, Schumacher CA, Schloss PD, Young VBInfect Immun10.1128/IAI.02768-142014Animals, Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects, Bile Acids and Salts/chemistry, Clostridioides difficile/growth & development/metabolism/*pathogenicity, Clostridium Infections/etiology/microbiology/mortality/*pathology, Colitis/etiology/microbiology/mortality/*pathology, Disease Progression, Enterotoxins/biosynthesis/metabolism, Feces/microbiology, Female, Gastrointestinal Tract/drug effects/microbiology/*pathology, Male, Mice, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Microbiota/drug effects, Spores, Bacterial/growth & development/metabolism/pathogenicity, Survival Analysis, Time FactorsPathogenicity
Metabolism25800047Bacillus amyloliquefaciens as prophylactic treatment for Clostridium difficile-associated disease in a mouse model.Geeraerts S, Ducatelle R, Haesebrouck F, Van Immerseel FJ Gastroenterol Hepatol10.1111/jgh.129572015Administration, Ophthalmic, Animals, *Antibiosis, *Bacillus/physiology, Bacterial Proteins/metabolism, Bacterial Toxins/metabolism, *Clostridioides difficile/growth & development, Colon/metabolism/microbiology/pathology, Disease Models, Animal, Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous/*microbiology/pathology/*prevention & control, Enterotoxins/metabolism, Female, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Probiotics/administration & dosage/*therapeutic usePathogenicity
Pathogenicity26181795Defined Nutrient Diets Alter Susceptibility to Clostridium difficile Associated Disease in a Murine Model.Moore JH, Pinheiro CC, Zaenker EI, Bolick DT, Kolling GL, van Opstal E, Noronha FJ, De Medeiros PH, Rodriguez RS, Lima AA, Guerrant RL, Warren CAPLoS One10.1371/journal.pone.01318292015Animals, Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology, Bacterial Load, Cecum/microbiology, *Clostridioides difficile, Diet, Protein-Restricted, Disease Susceptibility, Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous/*microbiology, Gastrointestinal Microbiome/drug effects/genetics, Male, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Protective Factors, Protein Deficiency/microbiology
Pathogenicity26455347Interleukin-23 (IL-23), independent of IL-17 and IL-22, drives neutrophil recruitment and innate inflammation during Clostridium difficile colitis in mice.McDermott AJ, Falkowski NR, McDonald RA, Pandit CR, Young VB, Huffnagle GBImmunology10.1111/imm.125452015Animals, Antibodies, Monoclonal/administration & dosage, Clostridioides difficile/*immunology/pathogenicity, Colon/drug effects/*immunology/metabolism/pathology, Disease Models, Animal, Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous/*immunology/microbiology/pathology, Female, *Immunity, Innate/drug effects, Inflammation Mediators/*immunology/metabolism, Interleukin-17/deficiency/genetics/*immunology, Interleukin-23 Subunit p19/deficiency/genetics/*immunology, Interleukins/antagonists & inhibitors/*immunology/metabolism, Intestinal Mucosa/drug effects/*immunology/metabolism/pathology, Male, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Mice, Knockout, *Neutrophil Infiltration/drug effects, Neutrophils/drug effects/*immunology/metabolism, Pancreatitis-Associated Proteins, Proteins/immunology/metabolism, Signal TransductionMetabolism
Pathogenicity26502913Memory B Cells Encode Neutralizing Antibody Specific for Toxin B from the Clostridium difficile Strains VPI 10463 and NAP1/BI/027 but with Superior Neutralization of VPI 10463 Toxin B.Devera TS, Lang GA, Lanis JM, Rampuria P, Gilmore CL, James JA, Ballard JD, Lang MLInfect Immun10.1128/IAI.00011-152015Animals, Antibodies, Bacterial/immunology, Antibodies, Neutralizing/*immunology, Antitoxins/*immunology, B-Lymphocytes/*immunology, Bacterial Proteins/*immunology, Bacterial Toxins/*immunology, CHO Cells, Cell Line, Clostridioides difficile/*immunology/pathogenicity, Clostridium Infections/immunology/pathology, Cricetulus, Female, Humans, Immunoglobulin G/blood/immunology, Immunologic Memory/immunology, Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology, Mice, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Protein Structure, Tertiary
26568840Treatment of Clostridium difficile infection in mice with vancomycin alone is as effective as treatment with vancomycin and metronidazole in combination.Erikstrup LT, Aarup M, Hagemann-Madsen R, Dagnaes-Hansen F, Kristensen B, Olsen KE, Fuursted KBMJ Open Gastroenterol10.1136/bmjgast-2015-0000382015
Pathogenicity26832756Treatment of Clostridium difficile infection using SQ641, a capuramycin analogue, increases post-treatment survival and improves clinical measures of disease in a murine model.Moore JH 2nd, van Opstal E, Kolling GL, Shin JH, Bogatcheva E, Nikonenko B, Einck L, Phipps AJ, Guerrant RL, Protopopova M, Warren CAJ Antimicrob Chemother10.1093/jac/dkv4792016Administration, Oral, Aminoglycosides/*therapeutic use, Animals, Anti-Bacterial Agents/*therapeutic use, Bacterial Shedding, Bacterial Toxins/analysis, Clostridioides difficile/*drug effects, Disease Models, Animal, Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous/*drug therapy/microbiology/pathology, Feces/chemistry/microbiology, Male, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Severity of Illness Index, Survival Analysis, Treatment Outcome, Uridine/*analogs & derivatives/therapeutic use
Pathogenicity26917573Vancomycin Treatment Alters Humoral Immunity and Intestinal Microbiota in an Aged Mouse Model of Clostridium difficile Infection.van Opstal E, Kolling GL, Moore JH 2nd, Coquery CM, Wade NS, Loo WM, Bolick DT, Shin JH, Erickson LD, Warren CAJ Infect Dis10.1093/infdis/jiw0712016Age Factors, Animals, Anti-Bacterial Agents/*therapeutic use, Clostridioides difficile/*drug effects, Clostridium Infections/*drug therapy, Gastrointestinal Microbiome/*drug effects, Humans, Immunity, Humoral/*drug effects, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Models, Animal, Vancomycin/*therapeutic use
Pathogenicity27018325Effect of oligosaccharides on the adhesion of gut bacteria to human HT-29 cells.Altamimi M, Abdelhay O, Rastall RAAnaerobe10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.03.0102016Bacterial Adhesion/*drug effects, Bacteroides/drug effects/physiology, Bacteroides fragilis/drug effects/physiology, Bifidobacterium/drug effects/physiology, Clostridium/drug effects/physiology, Faecalibacterium/drug effects/physiology, Gastrointestinal Microbiome/*drug effects, HT29 Cells, Humans, Lactobacillus casei/drug effects/physiology, Mucins/metabolism, Oligosaccharides/*pharmacology, Prebiotics/*analysis, Species SpecificityPhylogeny
27257437The efficacy of thuricin CD, tigecycline, vancomycin, teicoplanin, rifampicin and nitazoxanide, independently and in paired combinations against Clostridium difficile biofilms and planktonic cells.Mathur H, Rea MC, Cotter PD, Hill C, Ross RPGut Pathog10.1186/s13099-016-0102-82016
Metabolism27514478Probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 prevents outbreak-associated Clostridium difficile-associated cecal inflammation in hamsters.Koon HW, Su B, Xu C, Mussatto CC, Tran DH, Lee EC, Ortiz C, Wang J, Lee JE, Ho S, Chen X, Kelly CP, Pothoulakis CAm J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol10.1152/ajpgi.00150.20162016Animals, Cecum/metabolism/*microbiology/pathology, Clostridioides difficile, Clostridium Infections/microbiology/*prevention & control, Cricetinae, Inflammation/metabolism/*microbiology/pathology, NF-kappa B/metabolism, Phosphorylation, Probiotics/*therapeutic use, *Saccharomyces boulardii, Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolismPathogenicity
27999606Traditional Chinese Medicine QPYF as Preventive Treatment for Clostridium difficile Associated Diarrhea in a Mouse Model.Ya-Nan G, Jun W, Hao-Jun Z, Hong-Bing J, Ping L, Xin-Zhu LEvid Based Complement Alternat Med10.1155/2016/37598192016
Pathogenicity28125650Development of a Novel Vaccine Containing Binary Toxin for the Prevention of Clostridium difficile Disease with Enhanced Efficacy against NAP1 Strains.Secore S, Wang S, Doughtry J, Xie J, Miezeiewski M, Rustandi RR, Horton M, Xoconostle R, Wang B, Lancaster C, Kristopeit A, Wang SC, Christanti S, Vitelli S, Gentile MP, Goerke A, Skinner J, Strable E, Thiriot DS, Bodmer JL, Heinrichs JHPLoS One10.1371/journal.pone.01706402017Animals, Bacterial Toxins/*genetics/toxicity, Bacterial Vaccines/*administration & dosage/genetics, Clostridioides difficile/drug effects/pathogenicity, Clostridium Infections/genetics/microbiology/*prevention & control, Cricetinae, Disease Models, Animal, Enterotoxins/*genetics/toxicity, Humans, Macaca mulatta/microbiology, Mesocricetus/microbiology
Pathogenicity28219893Toxin-positive Clostridium difficile latently infect mouse colonies and protect against highly pathogenic C. difficile.Etienne-Mesmin L, Chassaing B, Adekunle O, Mattei LM, Bushman FD, Gewirtz ATGut10.1136/gutjnl-2016-3135102017Animals, Anti-Bacterial Agents/*pharmacology, Bacterial Toxins, Clostridioides difficile/drug effects/genetics/*pathogenicity, Clostridium Infections/*microbiology, Intestines/microbiology, Male, Mice, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Virulence, Whole Genome SequencingGenetics
Pathogenicity28284851Clostridium difficile-derived membrane vesicles induce the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes and cytotoxicity in colonic epithelial cells in vitro.Nicholas A, Jeon H, Selasi GN, Na SH, Kwon HI, Kim YJ, Choi CW, Kim SI, Lee JCMicrob Pathog10.1016/j.micpath.2017.03.0062017Bacterial Proteins/genetics/metabolism/*toxicity, Bacterial Toxins/*toxicity, Caco-2 Cells/drug effects, Cell Culture Techniques, Chemokine CCL2/drug effects/genetics, Clostridioides difficile/genetics/*metabolism, Colon/*pathology, Cytokines/*drug effects/*genetics, Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous/metabolism, Enterotoxins/genetics/metabolism/*toxicity, Epithelial Cells/*drug effects, Flow Cytometry, Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects, Hep G2 Cells/drug effects, Humans, Interleukin-1beta/drug effects/genetics, Interleukin-6/genetics, Interleukin-8/drug effects/genetics, Intestinal Mucosa/drug effects, Microscopy, Electron, Transmission, ProteomicsMetabolism
Pathogenicity28465256A combination of the probiotic and prebiotic product can prevent the germination of Clostridium difficile spores and infection.Ratsep M, Koljalg S, Sepp E, Smidt I, Truusalu K, Songisepp E, Stsepetova J, Naaber P, Mikelsaar RH, Mikelsaar MAnaerobe10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.03.0192017Animals, Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology, Antibiosis, Clostridioides difficile/drug effects/isolation & purification/*physiology, Clostridium Infections/microbiology/*prevention & control, Disease Models, Animal, Estonia, Humans, Lactobacillus plantarum/drug effects/*physiology, Male, Mesocricetus, Microbial Sensitivity Tests, Norway, Prebiotics/*administration & dosage, Probiotics/*administration & dosage, Spores, Bacterial/*growth & development, Xylitol/*administration & dosageEnzymology
28765714High prevalence of subclass-specific binding and neutralizing antibodies against Clostridium difficile toxins in adult cystic fibrosis sera: possible mode of immunoprotection against symptomatic C. difficile infection.Monaghan TM, Negm OH, MacKenzie B, Hamed MR, Shone CC, Humphreys DP, Acharya KR, Wilcox MHClin Exp Gastroenterol10.2147/CEG.S1339392017
Pathogenicity29632249Clostridium difficile Toxoid Vaccine Candidate Confers Broad Protection against a Range of Prevalent Circulating Strains in a Nonclinical Setting.Quemeneur L, Petiot N, Arnaud-Barbe N, Hessler C, Pietrobon PJ, Londono-Hayes PInfect Immun10.1128/IAI.00742-172018Animals, Bacterial Proteins/*immunology, Bacterial Toxins/*immunology, Bacterial Vaccines/*immunology, Clostridioides difficile/genetics/*immunology/metabolism, Clostridium Infections/*prevention & control, Cricetinae, Enterotoxins/*immunology, Female, Genome, Bacterial, MesocricetusGenetics
29967595Establishment of an Endogenous Clostridium difficile Rat Infection Model and Evaluation of the Effects of Clostridium butyricum MIYAIRI 588 Probiotic Strain.Oka K, Osaki T, Hanawa T, Kurata S, Sugiyama E, Takahashi M, Tanaka M, Taguchi H, Kamiya SFront Microbiol10.3389/fmicb.2018.012642018
Pathogenicity29985307A Protein Microarray Assay for Serological Determination of Antigen-specific Antibody Responses Following Clostridium difficile Infection.Negm OH, Hamed M, Monaghan TMJ Vis Exp10.3791/573992018Adult, Antibodies, Bacterial/*immunology, Clostridioides difficile/*pathogenicity, Clostridium Infections/*diagnosis, Humans, Protein Array Analysis/*methods
30172633Protection against Clostridium difficile infection in a hamster model by oral vaccination using flagellin FliC-loaded pectin beads.Bruxelle JF, Tsapis N, Hoys S, Collignon A, Janoir C, Fattal E, Pechine SVaccine10.1016/j.vaccine.2018.08.0132018Administration, Oral, Animals, Bacterial Proteins/immunology, Bacterial Vaccines/chemistry/*immunology, Capsules, Clostridioides difficile, Clostridium Infections/*prevention & control, Colon/immunology/microbiology, Cricetinae, Disease Models, Animal, Female, Flagellin/*immunology, *Immunity, Mucosal, Immunoglobulin G/blood, Microspheres, Pectins/*administration & dosage, Vaccination/methods
30356740Protective Effect of Pediococcus pentosaceus LI05 Against Clostridium difficile Infection in a Mouse Model.Xu Q, Gu S, Chen Y, Quan J, Lv L, Chen D, Zheng B, Xu L, Li LFront Microbiol10.3389/fmicb.2018.023962018
30619112Bacteroides fragilis Prevents Clostridium difficile Infection in a Mouse Model by Restoring Gut Barrier and Microbiome Regulation.Deng H, Yang S, Zhang Y, Qian K, Zhang Z, Liu Y, Wang Y, Bai Y, Fan H, Zhao X, Zhi FFront Microbiol10.3389/fmicb.2018.029762018
30842760Lactobacillus gasseri APC 678 Reduces Shedding of the Pathogen Clostridium difficile in a Murine Model.Quigley L, Coakley M, Alemayehu D, Rea MC, Casey PG, O'Sullivan O, Murphy E, Kiely B, Cotter PD, Hill C, Ross RPFront Microbiol10.3389/fmicb.2019.002732019
Phylogeny30988143Modified Mouse Model of Clostridioides difficile Infection as a Platform for Probiotic Efficacy Studies.De Wolfe TJ, Kates AE, Barko L, Darien BJ, Safdar NAntimicrob Agents Chemother10.1128/AAC.00111-192019Animals, Bifidobacterium/genetics/physiology, Clostridioides difficile/genetics/*pathogenicity, Clostridium Infections/microbiology/*prevention & control, Gastrointestinal Microbiome/physiology, Lactobacillus/genetics/*physiology, Male, Mice, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Preventive Medicine/*methods, Probiotics/*therapeutic use, RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics
Pathogenicity31212980Toxin B Variants from Clostridium difficile Strains VPI 10463 and NAP1/027 Share Similar Substrate Profile and Cellular Intoxication Kinetics but Use Different Host Cell Entry Factors.Lopez-Urena D, Orozco-Aguilar J, Chaves-Madrigal Y, Ramirez-Mata A, Villalobos-Jimenez A, Ost S, Quesada-Gomez C, Rodriguez C, Papatheodorou P, Chaves-Olarte EToxins (Basel)10.3390/toxins1106034820193T3 Cells, Animals, Bacterial Physiological Phenomena, Bacterial Proteins/*toxicity, Bacterial Toxins/*toxicity, Cell Survival/drug effects, Clostridioides difficile/physiology, Clostridium Infections/immunology, Cytokines/immunology, Enterotoxins/*toxicity, HeLa Cells, *Host Microbial Interactions, Humans, Intestines/drug effects/immunology/microbiology, Male, Mice, Neutrophils/immunology, Receptors, Cell Surface/metabolism, Virulence Factors/*toxicityEnzymology
Pathogenicity31578248Designed Ankyrin Repeat Protein (DARPin) Neutralizers of TcdB from Clostridium difficile Ribotype 027.Peng Z, Simeon R, Mitchell SB, Zhang J, Feng H, Chen ZmSphere10.1128/mSphere.00596-192019Animals, *Ankyrin Repeat, Bacterial Proteins/*antagonists & inhibitors, Bacterial Toxins/*antagonists & inhibitors, Caco-2 Cells, Chlorocebus aethiops, Clostridioides difficile/*classification, Humans, *Protein Engineering, Ribotyping, Vero CellsPhylogeny
Pathogenicity31584822Chemical Space Exploration around Thieno[3,2-d]pyrimidin-4(3H)-one Scaffold Led to a Novel Class of Highly Active Clostridium difficile Inhibitors.Shao X, AbdelKhalek A, Abutaleb NS, Velagapudi UK, Yoganathan S, Seleem MN, Talele TTJ Med Chem10.1021/acs.jmedchem.9b011982019Animals, Anti-Bacterial Agents/*chemistry/*pharmacology/toxicity, Caco-2 Cells, Chlorocebus aethiops, Clostridioides difficile/*drug effects, Drug Design, Humans, Microbial Sensitivity Tests, Models, Molecular, Molecular Conformation, Pyrimidines/*chemistry/*pharmacology/toxicity, Stereoisomerism, Structure-Activity Relationship, Vero Cells
31717334Immunogenicity and Protection from Receptor-Binding Domains of Toxins as Potential Vaccine Candidates for Clostridium difficile.Luo D, Liu X, Xing L, Sun Y, Huang J, Zhang L, Li J, Wang HVaccines (Basel)10.3390/vaccines70401802019
Proteome33166349Impact of subinhibitory concentrations of metronidazole on proteome of Clostridioides difficile strains with different levels of susceptibility.Doan TH, Yen-Nicolay S, Bernet-Camard MF, Martin-Verstraete I, Pechine SPLoS One10.1371/journal.pone.02419032020Adaptation, Physiological, Anti-Bacterial Agents/*pharmacology, Bacterial Proteins/*metabolism, Biofilms/drug effects/growth & development, Chromatography, Liquid, Clostridioides difficile/drug effects/*growth & development/metabolism, Dose-Response Relationship, Drug, Drug Resistance, Bacterial, Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial/drug effects, Metronidazole/*pharmacology, Proteomics/*methods, Sigma Factor/metabolism, Tandem Mass SpectrometryMetabolism
Pathogenicity33193352Infection With Clostridioides difficile Attenuated Collagen-Induced Arthritis in Mice and Involved Mesenteric Treg and Th2 Polarization.Schmidt CJ, Wenndorf K, Ebbers M, Volzke J, Muller M, Strubing J, Kriebel K, Kneitz S, Kreikemeyer B, Muller-Hilke BFront Immunol10.3389/fimmu.2020.5710492020Animals, Arthritis, Experimental/*immunology, Arthritis, Rheumatoid/*immunology, Cell Differentiation, Clostridioides difficile/*physiology, Clostridium Infections/*immunology, Disease Models, Animal, Disease Resistance, Fecal Microbiota Transplantation, Feces/microbiology, Gastrointestinal Microbiome, Humans, Lymphocyte Activation, Mesentery/*immunology, Mice, Mice, Inbred DBA, T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/*immunology, Th2 Cells/*immunology
Metabolism33305657Detection and elimination of a novel non-toxigenic Clostridioides difficile strain from the microbiota of a mouse colony.Maslanka JR, Gu CH, Zarin I, Denny JE, Broadaway S, Fett B, Mattei LM, Walk ST, Abt MCGut Microbes10.1080/19490976.2020.18519992020ADP Ribose Transferases/*genetics/metabolism, Animals, Bacterial Proteins/*genetics/metabolism, Bacterial Toxins/*genetics/metabolism, Clostridioides difficile/classification/genetics/*isolation & purification, Enterotoxins/*genetics/metabolism, Genome, Bacterial/*genetics, Intestine, Large/microbiology, Mice, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Microbiota/genetics, Virulence/genetics, Whole Genome SequencingGenetics
Pathogenicity33468584Murine Intrarectal Instillation of Purified Recombinant Clostridioides difficile Toxins Enables Mechanistic Studies of Pathogenesis.Markham NO, Bloch SC, Shupe JA, Laubacher EN, Thomas AK, Kroh HK, Childress KO, Peritore-Galve FC, Washington MK, Coffey RJ, Lacy DBInfect Immun10.1128/IAI.00543-202021Animals, Bacterial Proteins/administration & dosage/genetics, Bacterial Toxins/administration & dosage/genetics, Clostridioides difficile/*pathogenicity, Colon, Disease Models, Animal, *Disease Susceptibility, Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous/*microbiology, Enterotoxins/*administration & dosage/genetics, Humans, Immunohistochemistry, Intestinal Mucosa/pathology, Mice, Mutant Proteins, Recombinant Proteins/*administration & dosage
Pathogenicity34597343A new phenothiazine derivate is active against Clostridioides difficile and shows low cytotoxicity.Ronco T, Aragao FM, Saaby L, Christensen JB, Permin A, Williams AR, Thamsborg SM, Olsen RHPLoS One10.1371/journal.pone.02582072021Administration, Oral, Animals, Caco-2 Cells, Clostridioides difficile/*drug effects/pathogenicity, Clostridium Infections/*drug therapy/genetics/microbiology/pathology, Feces/microbiology, Gastrointestinal Microbiome/*drug effects/genetics, Humans, Mice, Phenothiazines/*pharmacology, RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/geneticsPhylogeny
35625268Impact of Subinhibitory Concentrations of Metronidazole on Morphology, Motility, Biofilm Formation and Colonization of Clostridioides difficile.Doan TH, Bernet-Camard MF, Hoys S, Janoir C, Pechine SAntibiotics (Basel)10.3390/antibiotics110506242022
35663882Akkermansia muciniphila Ameliorates Clostridioides difficile Infection in Mice by Modulating the Intestinal Microbiome and Metabolites.Wu Z, Xu Q, Gu S, Chen Y, Lv L, Zheng B, Wang Q, Wang K, Wang S, Xia J, Yang L, Bian X, Jiang X, Zheng L, Li LFront Microbiol10.3389/fmicb.2022.8419202022

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37003Curators of the CIPhttps://brclims.pasteur.fr/brcWeb/souche/detail/1/6959 Collection of Institut Pasteur (CIP 109240)
46967Curators of the CCUGhttps://www.ccug.se/strain?id=19126Culture Collection University of Gothenburg (CCUG) (CCUG 19126)
66792Julia Koblitz, Joaquim Sardà, Lorenz Christian Reimer, Boyke Bunk, Jörg OvermannAutomatically annotated for the DiASPora project (Digital Approaches for the Synthesis of Poorly Accessible Biodiversity Information)https://diaspora-project.de/progress.html#genomes
68380Automatically annotated from API rID32A